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      1. 甘肅政法學院學報

        2005, (01) 43-51

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        公共政策中的社會性別——《婚姻法》的社會性別分析及其立法完善
        On the Gender in Public Policies ——Gender Analysis in Marriage Law and Its Improvement

        陳葦,冉啟玉

        摘要:

        為實現男女間真正的平等 ,公共政策的制定應當具有社會性別視角。社會性別理論認為 :男女之間的差異是在“社會文化中形成的” ,是“社會體制習俗”把人組織到規范好的“男性”“女性”的活動中所產生的結果 ,而不是因為男女的生理特征而自然產生的。其分析方法要求考察女性與男性面對的不同的社會現實、生活期望、經濟環境等因素 ,分析社會公共政策對女性和男性的不同影響 ,尤其是可能給女性帶來的負面影響 ,進而修改社會公共政策 ,以期消除男女之間的實際不平等。我國 2 0 0 1年修訂后的《婚姻法》仍堅持男女平等的基本原則 ,規定男女兩性在婚姻家庭中享有平等的權利。但以社會性別平等理論來分析審視現行婚姻法 ,其結婚、夫妻關系、親子關系、離婚等具體制度中 ,某些規定仍缺乏性別意識 ,并不能真正使女性獲得與男性完全平等的法律保護 ,特建議從社會性別平等的角度對立法加以完善。

        關鍵詞: 社會性別;社會性別分析;婚姻法;立法建議

        Abstract: In order to realize the real equality between men and women, the viewpoint of gender should be adopted in public policy-making. The theory of gender holds the view that differences between men and women are taking shape in “social cultures”, and it results from the arrangement in which people are fixed into the activity of “men” and “women” respectively by “customs of social system”, but not results from the physiological features of men and women naturally. The method of gender analysis requires that we should explore the social realities, the hope of life and the economic circumstances women confront, which are different from those men face, and that we should analyze the influences of public policies on men and women, particularly the negative impact on women, and then amend social public policies and laws, in the hope that it might eliminate the substantial inequality between men and women. In China, the amended Marriage Law in 2001 still insists on the principle of equality between men and women, providing that men and women have equal rights in marriages and families. But examining and analyzing the current Marriage Law of China with the theory of gender equality, due to the shortage of gender sense in some provisions, some of the systems such as marriage, marital relationships, the parent-child relationship and divorce can't protect women as equally as men. Specially, some legislative suggestions on the improvement of these systems are put forward from the visual angle of gender equality.

        Keywords: gender; method of gender analysis; marriage law; legislative suggestions

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